Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term that refers to the spectrum of neurobiological, neurobehavioral and physiological impairments resulting from maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) represents the most extreme end of the spectrum, and is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation, central nervous system abnormalities, and specific facial dysmorphologies resulting from high levels of alcohol. However, doses and patterns of maternal alcohol consumption that do not result in full FAS can still lead to a range of cognitive and neurobehavioral impairments included under the umbrella of FASD, including partial FAS (pFAS), Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD), and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND).
- Williams JF, Smith VC. (2015). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics.
- Click on the NIH-NIAAA logo to view more information about FASD and prenatal alcohol exposure